Third, previous studies have shown a link between increasing temporal distance and diminishing levels of specific details in past and future event representations (D’Argembeau & Van der Linden, 2004; Szpunar & McDermontt, 2008), consistent with the idea that temporally remote events rely more on schematized construction; we therefore expected that irrespectively of temporal direction,
Enzalutamide datasheet temporally remote events would contain fewer episodic details. Again, we hypothesized that this main effect might be qualified by interactions due to the additional demands on construction when having to imagine or recall remote events, which might differentially impede the performance of the TBI group compared to the healthy controls. Fourth, if individuals with TBI show impaired episodic remembering and episodic future thinking, this may be reflected in a diminished sense of autonoetic awareness. Thus, it was predicted that individuals with TBI would rate both future and past events as involving less (p)re-experiencing and less sense of travelling in time. To examine these issues, we adopted a standard method
based on D’Argembeau and Van der Linden (2004), RAD001 supplier which involved asking participants to recall/imagine and describe a series of specific events from the personal past and future, the latter condition corresponding exactly to the former except for temporal reference, making it possible to compare the ability to generate autobiographical representations of the past and future directly. The participants’ descriptions were analysed following a standardized scoring procedure
developed by Levine, Svoboda, Hay, Winocur, and Moscovitch (2002), which allows assessment of the episodic and semantic aspects of a narrative describing a specific event. This scoring system takes into account that autobiographical memories are constructed from episodic 上海皓元 details, as well as from more personal and cultural semantic knowledge (Berntsen & Rubin, 2004; Conway & Pleydell-Pearce, 2000), and that these two kinds of knowledge are closely intertwined when it comes to narrative accounts of everyday memories and future thoughts. Although this task has not yet been used to asses memory and future thinking in TBI patients, it has previously been used with other patient populations including patients with MTL damage and mild Alzheimer’s disease (Addis et al., 2009; Race et al., 2011) and in healthy older adults (Addis, Wong, & Schacter, 2008). In addition, participants were asked for subjective ratings on two questions about the phenomenal qualities associated with remembered past and imagined future experiences, specifically, the extent to which participants felt they re-/pre-experienced the event in question and the extent to which they felt they travelled in time whilst recalling or imagining the event.