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“In a recent article, Hu and Colletti suggest that acetaminophen selleck chemicals llc (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol [APAP]) hepatotoxicity in mice is caused by caspase-dependent apoptosis.1 However, we have considerable concerns regarding experimental design, data interpretation, and the conclusions. First, the authors do not show apoptotic cellular morphology in sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin, which is considered the gold standard for
apoptosis.2, 3 Instead, they rely mainly on the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. However, this assay indicates DNA strand breaks, which are not specific for apoptosis.2 If one compares TUNEL-positive cells caused by APAP overdose with apoptotic cells induced by galactosamine/endotoxin, there is a difference in cellular staining patterns (Fig. 1). However, there is no difference in DNA ladder formation between APAP-induced necrosis and galactosamine/endotoxin-induced apoptosis, suggesting that endonucleases
are involved in both cases.4 Whereas pancaspase inhibitors eliminate DNA fragmentation after galactosamine/endotoxin-induced apoptosis,2, 3, 5 they have no effect on APAP-induced DNA fragmentation.3, 5 In contrast, scavenging of reactive oxygen and peroxynitrite in mitochondria prevents APAP hepatotoxicity.4 DNA click here damage after APAP overdose is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and nuclear translocation of intermembrane proteins (endonuclease G, apoptosis-inducing factor).6 DNA damage during apoptosis is caused by caspase-activated deoxyribonuclease2; however, there is no relevant caspase activation after APAP overdose.3-5 A transient appearance of caspase fragments shown in overexposed gels1 is insufficient evidence for caspase activation that could be responsible for 30% of hepatocytes undergoing apoptosis.3 Second, the authors
showed that the caspase inhibitor quinolyl-valyl-O-methylaspartyl-[-2,6-difluorophenoxy]-methyl ketone (Q-VD-OPh), 上海皓元医药股份有限公司 which is only soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), eliminated APAP hepatotoxicity.1 Based on the dose, we estimate that 2-10 mL/kg of DMSO was injected. We have demonstrated that pretreatment with as little as 0.25 mL/kg DMSO with or without caspase inhibitor eliminates APAP toxicity because DMSO is a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450.5 Treatment after APAP metabolism but before injury with DMSO-soluble or water-soluble caspase inhibitors is ineffective.3, 5 Thus, the results by Hu and Colletti can only be interpreted one way: First, the control group did not receive the solvent; Second, the protective effect of Q-VD-OPh was caused by the solvent DMSO, not the caspase inhibitor. Taken together, there is no credible evidence presented in this article that APAP hepatotoxicity is caused by caspase-dependent apoptosis. Hartmut Jaeschke Ph.D.*, C. David Williams B.